Please respond to these 5 post. Each response should be 1 paragraph or less.
Post 1 -Felicia Spencer
Biopsychology and Perceptions
I had a misperception of something I saw as I drove down my road. Living on a back road we have many deer, turkey, and other wildlife to worry about, especially at dusk or after dark. Driving home one day I thought I saw an animal on the side of the road, but as I got closer I realized it was part of a broken tree. My sight was fooled because my own preconceived perceptions cause me to jump to conclusions and see an illusion. I think that coupled with depth perception contributed to my senses being fooled. As stated in our textbook, we “tend to perceive the world in accord with out preconceptions” (Lilienfeld, Lynn, Namy, 2018, p.149) forming a perceptual set. In “seeing” an animal I was engaging in top-down processing. The theory of viewing things through my own preconceived perceptions is something I was already familiar with, but our text has allowed me to deeper my understanding of this occurrence from a cognitive standpoint, further enabling me to “check myself” and what’s going on around me.
Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., & Namy, L. L. (2018). Psychology: From inquiry to understanding.
Post 2 – Daphne Laput
For my article on the brain affecting behavior, I chose. “You Know You Want It (But Do You Know Why?). This article explores marketing and why we are drawn to certain products more than others and what the difference in marketing or circumstances are that lead us to purchase items. as well as ways to resist these tactics. The main reasons given in this article are brand loyalty and the need to feel “loved”, the physical feel of an item, scent, the specs , the “decoy effect”, and sales.
The article addressed things we learned such as how we make decisions via our sensory systems. Sensory adaption also comes into play, as we’re not even aware these things are happening! The power of scent is one that really surprised me, the fact that in a 200 study “67 percent of buyers who were given a strict budget but exposed to a cookie scent made an impulse purchase as opposed to only 17 percent of those in the scent-free environment” (YOU KNOW WHAT YOU WANT (But Do You Know Why)). To me this is a huge number! It’s also unsurprising though when I think of what makes me feel comfortable in a store, and if someplace feels homey and more welcoming I think it’s likely you’ll feel stronger about patronizing it. Touch is mentioned as a sensory experience that can alter our decisions. I know for myself it is very easy to grab a shirt and quickly put it back on the rack based simply on how it feels. It also found that our brains reacted strongly to sales on MRIs, as well as occasionally warnings, such as a warning for how dangerous cigarettes are still led smokers to stimulate the nucleus accumbens, aka the “desire center” of our brains.
The most surprising thing in this article to me was the sense of smell being such a “selling point”. Brand loyalty is something I see constantly (and end up adhering too as I type thing on my MacBook with an iPhone right beside me..) and I think these days may be one of the strongest selling points to individuals these days.
Lindstrom, M. (2009). YOU KNOW YOU WANT IT (But Do You know Why?). Men’s Health, 24(10), 36. Retrieved from http://library.esc.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true
Post 3 -Becky Wheeler
There are many days that I go walking in the woods behind my house. I am always on the lookout for animal sightings. My hope is that during one of these walks I am going to see an animal and it will let me pet it. I have recently had a few deer sightings as well as a few chipmunks running across the trails in front of me. But I had yet to get up close. The other day I was walking and it was starting to get dark earlier. I saw a group of deer in the clearing and I was so excited. I waited around to long looking at the deer. When I started to walk again I thought I saw something up ahead. It should be stated that I do need glasses just a mild prescription but I was not wearing them. I saw what I thought was a fawn curled up at the edge of the trail I was walking on. I started walking closer and slower because I didn’t want to spook it. I was getting so excited. By the time I got close enough to the “fawn” I realized it was just a fallen tree that was pushed off to the side of the trail.
I think if I had worn my glasses and not have stayed so long to watch the deer in the clearing I would have been able to see that I was creeping up on tree debris and not a baby deer. However once I was able to clearly see the tree I felt the disappointment first followed by a little embracement even though there was no one else around to witness my mistake.
Post 4-Sheri Coolidge
About 12 years ago, my husband and I had decided to go out with some friends for dinner and drinks. On our way home, we were walking up our street and out pops this “cat” from behind a bush. We were still some yards away and I started call the “cat” to come to me. It was very dark, and the “cat” was black and white. It kept running ahead of us and I just kept calling it. When we finally had gotten close enough the “cat” darted into an alley way between two houses and disappeared. The so-called cat I was calling wasn’t a cat but a skunk. My husband kept trying to stop me from calling the “cat” telling me it wasn’t a cat at all, but I wouldn’t listen.
I believe that the couple of drinks I had with my friends had altered my perception and sight making me believe that I was calling a cat to me and that I was seeing cat when it was a completely different animal. Had this “cat” decided to turn around and come towards us, we could’ve gotten very messy and very smelly.
Post 5- Megan McCartan
My topic was influenced by the Biological Psychology chapter in our text book, as well as the chapter on Consciousness. In chapter 3 of Psychology: From inquiry to understanding, we read about the different parts of the central nervous system and how they can play a role in behavior. There is a small section discussing the brainstem which includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla. There was minimal information about how the brainstem, specifically the pons plays a large role in both dreaming and REM sleep, but more information was provided on this later on in chapter 5. This section on the brainstem also discussed how the midbrain attributes to movement and reflexes. I found it interesting after reading the chapter on consciousness that normal REM Sleep is accompanied by atonia, or paralysis which stops most of us from acting out our dreams. It makes sense that this paralysis during sleep is regulated by the brainstem since movement and reflexes are attributed to this part of the CNS. The discussion of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder really intrigued me; and so I decided to look for articles discussing this topic.
The first article I found was called REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Accompanying Arachnoid Cyst: A Case Report. This article first gives us a glimpse at what RBD is: a disorder in which people no longer experience atonia during REM sleep and act out their dreams. This can often include very aggressive and violent behavior including vocalizations, reflexes and movements. The article then goes on to discuss a specific case of RBD involving a woman in her early 70’s who was brought in by her daughter to be evaluated because of suspicious activity that occurred while she was sleeping. The woman was found to have no neurological diseases, no substance or alcohol abuse problems, and was also cleared of any psychiatric issues/ history. An MRI was performed and it was discovered that the woman had a cyst in her skull near the brainstem. The women was given a sedative at night called clonazepam which was found to help in relieving her symptoms associated with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. The article ends with the suggestion that how legions which affect a persons’ brainstem could possibly “play a causal role in the pathophysiology of RBD” (Akinci, Samancıoğlu, 2016). Obviously, we know that finding causal relationship would require much more information and an experiment to be conducted, but there seems to be a strong link or correlation.
The second article that I found is called Medical image of the week: REM without atonia. This article discusses another case study of a patient found to have RBD. The man was in his late 70’s and had been previously diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease. He went in for a sleep study to test for obstructive sleep apnea; and so it was found he not only suffered form PD, but also RBD and OSA. The article goes on to discuss how closely Parkinson’s and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder are linked stating that RBD “occurs in up to 60% of PD patients” (Bartell, Shetty, Knox, 2015). Not all who have Parkinson’s Disease also suffer from REM Sleep Behavior Disorder, but much like our textbook stated, this article proposes that RBD could be a precursor to the possible onset of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors of this article talk about how patients who suffer from both PD and RBD seem to suffer more severely in the symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease. Lastly, this article also discusses the use of clonazepam in treatment for RBD patients.
Each of these articles support various pieces of information that I read in our textbook regarding both the brainstem, and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. Both the first article and our textbook discuss the important roles that the brainstem (especially the pons) plays in normal sleep patterns and atonia during REM. The second article, similar to our book, proposes a link between RBD and other neurodegenrative diseases like PD. What surprised me was how high the link between PD and RBD was. Our textbook states that REM Sleep Behavior Disorder is fairly rare, yet I have to question if that is true seeing as though such a large portion of people who suffer from Parkinson’s also suffer from RBD. Also, there seems to be plenty of cases of people who do not experience atonia during REM. I would have to wonder if perhaps RBD is more common than we are aware. I was also fairly surprised at first to find out that a sedative could alleviate the symptoms of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. I suppose I did not assume there would be an effective treatment for a disorder in which there is so much controversy surrounding what exactly causes it. It does make sense after thinking about it however, since clonazepam binds with GABA receptors which “inhibits neurons, thereby dampening neural activity” (Lilienfeld, et al, 2014, p. 87).
Akıncı, E., & Samancıoğlu, A. (2016). REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Accompanying Arachnoid Cyst: A Case Report. Sleep & Hypnosis, 18(3), 1–68. https://doi-org.library.esc.edu/10.5350/Sleep.Hypn.2016.18.0109
Bartell J, Shetty S, & Knox KS. (2015). Medical image of the week: REM without atonia. Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 147-148 (2015), (3), 147. https://doi-org.library.esc.edu/10.13175/swjpcc022-15
Lilienfeld, S. O., Cramer, K. M., Namy, L. L., Lynn, S. J., Woolf, N. J., & Schmaltz, R. (2015). Psychology: From inquiry to understanding. Toronto: Pearson.