Explain what chirality is from a molecular point of view and provide two examples of its relevance in the body with reference to chiral compounds.

Explain what chirality is from a molecular point of view and provide two examples of its relevance in the body with reference to chiral compounds.

Bio Chemistry Ass 1 May 2017

Q1:: Explain what chirality is from a molecular point of view and provide two examples of its relevance in the body with reference to chiral compounds.

A1::A molecule is said to be chiral if it can exist as an isomer (enantiomer) that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other. Chirality is important because the response of an organism of an organism to a compound depends on how that molecule fits on its intended receptor. In designing pharmaceuticals, the chemist ensures that he or she knows which enantiomer is active. For example, thalidomide is chiral, when its two enantiomers are mixed, they have distinct functions from each other and only one is teratogenic.

Comment::

Your answer would have been improved if you had mentioned the D and L enantiomers, and which one of these makes thalidomide teratogenic. A second example is also required. Review.

References

Crowe, Cameron-Smith, Walsh and Whitney. (2015). Understanding Nutrition: Australian And New Zealand Edition, 2nd Edition, 2nd Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780170264006/

Hein, M., Pattison, S., and Arena, S. (2013).Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118801994/

Tortora, G. J., and Derrickson, B. H. (2013-12-23). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118808979/

Q4C:: Enzymes

Discuss 3 factors that affect enzyme activity.

A4C::Most enzymes are affected by temperature. An increase in temperature consequently increases the rate of reaction. Enzymes will work best at the optimum temperatures since further increase will denature the enzymes. Similarly, a decrease in temperature to the freezing point induces inactivity. On the other hand, change in pH affects the way an enzyme functions. Enzymes also have optimum pH under which they functions best. Some enzymes such as pepsin works in an acidic environment while others such as ptyalin works in an alkaline environment.

Comment:

Your answer for 4C requires three different factors to affect enzyme activity. Review.

References

Crowe, Cameron-Smith, Walsh and Whitney. (2015). Understanding Nutrition: Australian And New Zealand Edition, 2nd Edition, 2nd Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780170264006/

Hein, M., Pattison, S., and Arena, S. (2013).Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118801994/

Tortora, G. J., and Derrickson, B. H. (2013-12-23). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118808979/

 

Bio Chemistry Ass 2 May 2017

Q3:: Briefly explain why most people are able to walk for hours but can only climb steps for minutes at a time, despite exactly the same muscles being used.

A3::Aerobic respiration requires oxygen to produce energy;

C6H12O6 + 6O2        6CO2 + 6H2O + 2900 kJ/mol

Anaerobic respiration

C6H12O6       2C3H6O3 + 120 kJ/mol

Anaerobic respiration utilizes oxygen and glucose to generate water, CO2 and energy. This enables people who are walking to sustain their pace with ease without getting much tired because the muscles that are less strained. But when one climbs stairs, an oxygen deficit is experienced in the muscles due to the strain, leading to anaerobic respiration which needs energy to generate lesser energy. This leads to fatigue and lactic acid accumulation in the muscles as a result of the anaerobic respiration. Climbing steps for minutes at a time entails anaerobic respiration while walking for hours entails aerobic respiration (Tortora, Gerard  andDerrickson,  946-947).

Comment:

Errors here:- “Anaerobic respiration utilizes oxygen and glucose to generate water, CO2 and energy.” And here:- “leading to anaerobic respiration which needs energy to generate lesser energy.” Review.

References

Crowe, Cameron-Smith, Walsh and Whitney. (2015). Understanding Nutrition: Australian And New Zealand Edition, 2nd Edition, 2nd Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780170264006/

Hein, M., Pattison, S., and Arena, S. (2013).Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118801994/

Tortora, G. J., and Derrickson, B. H. (2013-12-23). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118808979/

Q4:: A friend enthusiastically tells you that they are on a weight-loss diet, and since they want to lose fat from their body, they have completely eliminated fatty foods from their diet. Explain whether this diet will result in fat loss for them.

By giving up on fatty foods does not guarantee weight loss at all. Substituting these foods with processed carbohydrate foods would still mean that the friend would still encounter challenges in trying to lose weight. By choosing healthier alternatives of saturated fats from fish would be more logical and helpful. By checking the entire diet the fiend takes would also be more helpful.

Comment:

Your answer would be improved if you explained why carbohydrates challenge weight loss; and whether saturated fats are significant in fish. What would you be checking for by looking at the entire diet? Resubmit.

References

Crowe, Cameron-Smith, Walsh and Whitney. (2015). Understanding Nutrition: Australian And New Zealand Edition, 2nd Edition, 2nd Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780170264006/

Hein, M., Pattison, S., and Arena, S. (2013).Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118801994/

Tortora, G. J., and Derrickson, B. H. (2013-12-23). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118808979/

Bio Chemistry Ass 3 May 2017

Q1:: You meet a man who believes that drinking lots of beer and being overweight enhances his image of masculinity. Explain how his lifestyle could be affecting his hormone levels to make him more feminine.

Beer contain hops which are added to produce the bitter taste. Drinking lots of beer have been linked with making the man feminine. Hops contain an estrogenic compound called phytoestrogen, which occurs naturally in the plants. Despite the effects of phytoestrogen on sexuality is limited, there are animal studies that suggests otherwise. Research suggests the phytoestrogens may be linked to the feminine characteristics in male.

References

Crowe, Cameron-Smith, Walsh and Whitney. (2015). Understanding Nutrition: Australian And New Zealand Edition, 2nd Edition, 2nd Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780170264006/

Hein, M., Pattison, S., and Arena, S. (2013).Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118801994/

Tortora, G. J., and Derrickson, B. H. (2013-12-23). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118808979/

Comment:

Your answer would be improved if you explained how the excess calories in beer impacted on adipose levels, to then make a difference in aromatase levels, which influence hormone levels. Review.

Q4:: Protein synthesis and genetics

Your local police force proudly announces that they were able to identify a serial killer from a hair left at the scene of the crime. When the culprit was arrested, they had removed every hair from their body. Without having another hair cell as a comparison, explain how the police could be sure it was the right person?

Outline the steps that occur when a hair cell creates hair proteins

  1. Human hair is comprised of a protein called keratin. Human hair follicles differs in the context of length, color, root appearance, shape, and length. Hair follicles serve as evidence in the crime scene. Hair comparison can be done using a microscope, however, since there is no other hair cells to compare with, the forensic analyst may move a step further by extracting the DNA from the follicle. This would be followed by sequencing the extracted DNA with that of the culprit.

Comment:

Your answer to 4A would be improved if you clarified how the DNA of the follicle was then compared to the culprit. Review.

References

Crowe, Cameron-Smith, Walsh and Whitney. (2015). Understanding Nutrition: Australian And New Zealand Edition, 2nd Edition, 2nd Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780170264006/

Hein, M., Pattison, S., and Arena, S. (2013).Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 11th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118801994/

Tortora, G. J., and Derrickson, B. H. (2013-12-23). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Edition.[Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781118808979/

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By | 2019-10-28T13:44:31+00:00 October 28th, 2019|Biochemistry|