1. Ancient Hebrew civilization (2000 BCE to 70 CE) is not known for its political or military prowess, yet it is known for its enduring innovations in religion, law, and philosophy. Explain why this is so. In what ways did the Hebrew culture of western Mesopotamia differ from that of the Assyrians or the Babylonians? In what ways did these cultures resemble each other? Be sure to include important events, persons, and places in your answer.
2. Unlike its Mesopotamian neighbors to the east, ancient Egyptian civilization was known for its remarkable endurance. What were some of the factors that made Egypt so much more successful than the societies of Mesopotamia? How did this success affect Egyptian culture, theology, and scientific innovation? Use details to support your answer